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Cardiovascular and monitoring key papers

Cardiac arrest

HACAS study group

‘Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia to Improve the Neurologic Outcome after Cardiac Arrest’.

The New England Journal of Medicine 346, no. 8 (21 February 2002): 549–556. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa012689.


Sunde K et al.

‘Implementation of a Standardised Treatment Protocol for Post Resuscitation Care after out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest’.

Resuscitation 73, no. 1 (April 2007): 29–39. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2006.08.016.


Böttiger BW et al.

‘Thrombolysis during Resuscitation for out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest’.

The New England Journal of Medicine 359, no. 25 (18 December 2008): 2651–2662. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa070570.


Sasson C et al.

‘Prehospital Termination of Resuscitation in Cases of Refractory out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest’.

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 300, no. 12 (2008): 1432–1438.


Stiell IG et al.

‘Early versus Later Rhythm Analysis in Patients with out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest’.

The New England Journal of Medicine 365, no. 9 (1 September 2011): 787–797. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1010076.


Mentzelopoulos SD et al.

Vasopressin, steroids, and epinephrine and neurologically favorable survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial.

JAMA. 2013 Jul 17;310(3):270–9. 


TTM – Nielsen N et al.

Targeted temperature management at 33°C versus 36°C after cardiac arrest.

N Engl J Med. 2013 Dec 5;369(23):2197–206.


CHEER – Stub D et al.

Refractory cardiac arrest treated with mechanical CPR, hypothermia, ECMO and early reperfusion (the CHEER trial).

Resuscitation. 2014 Oct 2;pii: S0300-9572(14)00751-5  Wessex ICS BL review

Cardiovascular monitoring

PAC study group – Iberti TJ et al. 

‘A Multicenter Study of Physicians’ Knowledge of the Pulmonary Artery Catheter’.

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 264, no. 22 (1990): 2928.


SUPPORT – Connors AF et al..

‘The Effectiveness of Right Heart Catheterization in the Initial Care of Critically III Patients’.JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 276, no. 11 (18 September 1996): 889. doi:10.1001/jama.1996.03540110043030.


PAC-Man – Harvey S et al.

‘Assessment of the Clinical Effectiveness of Pulmonary Artery Catheters in Management of Patients in Intensive Care (PAC-Man): A Randomised Controlled Trial’. 

The Lancet 366, no. 9484 (August 2005): 472–477. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67061-4.


PULSE – Uchino S et al.

‘Pulmonary Artery Catheter versus Pulse Contour Analysis: A Prospective Epidemiological Study’. 

Critical Care 10, no. 6 (2006): R174.

Shah MR et al. Impact of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients: meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.Journal of the American Medical Association 2005; 294; 1664-70PubMed 


ARDSNET (PAC) – Wheeler AP et al 

‘Pulmonary-Artery versus Central Venous Catheter to Guide Treatment of Acute Lung Injury’.

N Engl J Med 354, no. 21 (2006): 2213–2224.

Fluid resuscitation

SAFE – Finfer S et al.

‘A Comparison of Albumin and Saline for Fluid Resuscitation in the Intensive Care Unit’.

The New England Journal of Medicine 350, no. 22 (27 May 2004): 2247–56. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa040232. 


6S – Perner A et al.

‘Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer’s Acetate in Severe Sepsis’.

The New England Journal of Medicine 367, no. 2 (12 July 2012): 124–134. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1204242. 


CHEST – Myburgh JA et al.

‘Hydroxyethyl Starch or Saline for Fluid Resuscitation in Intensive Care’.

New England Journal of Medicine (17 October 2012): 121017083448001. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1209759.


CRISTAL – Annane D et al.

‘Effects of Fluid Resuscitation With Colloids vs Crystalloids on Mortality in Critically Ill Patients Presenting With Hypovolemic Shock: The CRISTAL Randomized Trial’. 

JAMA 310, no. 17 (6 November 2013): 1809. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.280502.


ALBIOS – Caironi P et al.

‘Albumin Replacement in Patients with Severe Sepsis or Septic Shock’.

The New England Journal of Medicine, 18 March 2014. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1305727.


Fluid in sepsis and septic shock group – Rochwerg B et al.

Fluid Resuscitation in Sepsis: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.

Ann Intern Med. 2014 Sep 2;161(5):347–55.

In surgery

FACTT subgroup – Stewart RM  et al.

Less is more: improved outcomes in surgical patients with conservative fluid administration and central venous catheter monitoring.

J Am Coll Surg. 2009 May;208(5):725–35; discussion 735–7.

Fluid balance

EGDT – Rivers E  et al.
Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock.
New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 345: 1368-1377.

ARDSNET fluid strategies –  Wiedemann HP et al

‘Comparison of Two Fluid-Management Strategies in Acute Lung Injury’.

The New England Journal of Medicine 354, no. 24 (15 June 2006): 2564–75. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa062200.

Durairaj L and Schmidt GA.

‘Fluid Therapy in Resuscitated Sepsis: Less Is More’.

Chest 133, no. 1 (1 January 2008): 252–63. doi:10.1378/chest.07-1496.

Payen D and SOAP investigators.

‘A Positive Fluid Balance Is Associated with a Worse Outcome in Patients with Acute Renal Failure’.

Critical Care (London, England) 12, no. 3 (2008): R74. doi:10.1186/cc6916.

PICARD – Bouchard J et al.

‘Fluid Accumulation, Survival and Recovery of Kidney Function in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury’.

Kidney International 76, no. 4 (August 2009): 422–27. doi:10.1038/ki.2009.159.

Legrand M et al.

‘Understanding Urine Output in Critically Ill Patients’.

Annals of Intensive Care 1, no. 1 (2011): 13.

Goal-directed therapy

Shoemaker WP

‘Prospective Trial of Supranormal Values of Survivors as Therapeutic Goals in High-Risk Surgical Patients’.

Chest 94, no. 6 (1 December 1988): 1176–1186. doi:10.1378/chest.94.6.1176.


Gattinoni, L.,et al

‘A Trial of Goal-Oriented Hemodynamic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients’.

N Engl J Med 333, no. 16 (1995): 1025–1032.


Wilson J et al.

‘Reducing the Risk of Major Elective Surgery: Randomised Controlled Trial of Preoperative Optimisation of Oxygen Delivery’.

BMJ 318, no. 7191 (1999): 1099–1103.


Jones AE.

‘The Effect of a Quantitative Resuscitation Strategy on Mortality in Patients with Sepsis: A Meta-Analysis’.

Critical Care Medicine 36, no. 10 (October 2008): 2734–2739.doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318186f839.


OPTIMISE – Pearse RM et al.

‘Effect of a Perioperative, Cardiac Output-Guided Hemodynamic Therapy Algorithm on Outcomes Following Major Gastrointestinal Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial and Systematic Review’.

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 19 May 2014. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.5305.



‘A Randomized Trial of Protocol-Based Care for Early Septic Shock’.

The New England Journal of Medicine, 18 March 2014. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1401602.

Heart failure


LIDO – Follath F et al.

‘Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Levosimendan Compared with Dobutamine in Severe Low-Output Heart Failure (the LIDO Study): A Randomised Double-Blind Trial’.

Lancet 360, no. 9328 (20 July 2002): 196–202.


RUSSLAN – Moiseyev, V S et al.

‘Safety and Efficacy of a Novel Calcium Sensitizer, Levosimendan, in Patients with Left Ventricular Failure due to an Acute Myocardial Infarction. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study (RUSSLAN)’.

European Heart Journal 23, no. 18 (September 2002): 1422–1432.


SURVIVE – Mebazaa A et al.

‘Levosimendan vs Dobutamine for Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: The SURVIVE Randomized Trial’.

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 297, no. 17:1883–1891. doi:10.1001/jama.297.17.1883 (2007)


BELIEF – Bocchi EA et al.

‘Levosimendan in Decompensated Heart Failure Patients: Efficacy in a Brazilian Cohort. Results of the BELIEF Study’.

Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia 90, no. 3 (March 2008): 182–190.


ESCAPE – Binanay C et al.

‘Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness: The ESCAPE Trial’.

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 294, no. 13 (5 October 2005): 1625–1633. doi:10.1001/jama.294.13.1625.


ROSE – Chen H et al.

‘Low-Dose Dopamine or Low-Dose Nesiritide in Acute Heart Failure with Renal Dysfunction: The ROSE Acute Heart Failure Randomized Trial’.

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 310, no. 23 (18 December 2013): 2533–2543. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.282190.


Felker GM et al.

‘Diuretic Strategies in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure’.

The New England Journal of Medicine 364, no. 9 (3 March 2011): 797–805. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1005419


SHOCK – Hochman JS et al.

‘Early Revascularization in Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock. SHOCK Investigators. Should We Emergently Revascularize Occluded Coronaries for Cardiogenic Shock’.

The New England Journal of Medicine 341, no. 9 (26 August 1999): 625–634. doi:10.1056/NEJM199908263410901.


COMMIT – Chen ZM et al

‘Early Intravenous Then Oral Metoprolol in 45,852 Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial’.

Lancet 366, no. 9497 (5 November 2005): 1622–1632. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67661-1.


SOAP II – De Backer D et al.

‘Comparison of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in the Treatment of Shock’.

The New England Journal of Medicine 362, no. 9 (4 March 2010): 779–789. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0907118.


Ahmad Y et al.
Intra-aortic Balloon Pump Therapy for Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Meta-analysis.
JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Jun 1;175(6):931-9. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0569.

Volume assessment

Pinsky MR.

‘Using Ventilation-Induced Aortic Pressure and Flow Variation to Diagnose Preload Responsiveness’.

Intensive Care Medicine 30, no. 6 (1 June 2004): 1008–1010. doi:10.1007/s00134-004-2208-6


De Backer D, Pinsky MR.

‘Can One Predict Fluid Responsiveness in Spontaneously Breathing Patients?’

Intensive Care Medicine 33, no. 7 (17 May 2007): 1111–1113. doi:10.1007/s00134-007-0645-8.


Marik PE et al

‘Dynamic Changes in Arterial Waveform Derived Variables and Fluid Responsiveness in Mechanically Ventilated Patients: A Systematic Review of the Literature*:’

Critical Care Medicine 37, no. 9 (September 2009): 2642–2647. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181a590da. 

Inotropes and pressors in septic shock

See Sepsis and infection

Steroids in septic shock

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