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Sepsis and infection key papers

Inotropes and vasopressors

Tsuneyoshi I. 
‘Hemodynamic and Metabolic Effects of Low-Dose Vasopressin Infusions in Vasodilatory Septic Shock’.
Critical Care Medicine 29, no. 3 (2001): 487.
LIDO – Follath F et al. 
‘Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Levosimendan Compared with Dobutamine in Severe Low-Output Heart Failure (the LIDO Study): A Randomised Double-Blind Trial*’
The Lancet 360, no. 9328 (2002): 196–202.
Friedrich JON et al
‘Meta-Analysis: Low-Dose Dopamine Increases Urine Output but Does Not Prevent Renal Dysfunction or Death’.
Annals of Internal Medicine 142, no. 7 (2005): 510–524.
CATS – Annane D et al. 
‘Norepinephrine plus Dobutamine versus Epinephrine Alone for Management of Septic Shock: A Randomised Trial’
Lancet 370, no. 9588 (25 August 2007): 676–684. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61344-0.WessexICS BL review
VASST – Russell JA et al.
Vasopressin versus norepinephrine infusion in patients with septic shock.
New England Journal of Medicine 2008; 358: 877-87.
Pearse RM, Belsey JD, Cole JN, Bennett ED.
Effect of dopexamine infusion on mortality following major surgery: individual patient data meta-regression analysis of published clinical trials.
Critical Care Medicine 2008; 36: 1323-9.
DOBUPRESS Morelli A et al
‘Effects of Short-Term Simultaneous Infusion of Dobutamine and Terlipressin in Patients with Septic Shock: The DOBUPRESS Study’
 British Journal of Anaesthesia 100, no. 4 (2008): 494–503.
SACiUCI – Póvoa PR et al.;
Influence of vasopressor agent in septic shock mortality. Results from the Portuguese Community-Acquired Sepsis Study
Critical Care Medicine 2009; 37: 410-416 
TERLIVAP – Morelli A et al. 
‘Continuous Terlipressin versus Vasopressin Infusion in Septic Shock (TERLIVAP): A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study’.
Crit Care 13, no. 4 (2009): R130.
SOAP 2 – De Backer D. 
Comparison of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in the Treatment of Shock’. 
 New England Journal of Medicine 362, no. 9 (2010): 779–789. WikiJournalClub review
SEPSISPAM – Asfar P et al.
High versus Low Blood-Pressure Target in Patients with Septic Shock’.
The New England Journal of Medicine, 18 March 2014. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1312173.
CATSS – Beck V et al.
Timing of vasopressor initiation and mortality in septic shock: a cohort study.

Goal-directed therapy

Shoemaker WP.
Prospective Trial of Supranormal Values of Survivors as Therapeutic Goals in High-Risk Surgical Patients’.
Chest 94, no. 6 (1 December 1988): 1176–1186. doi:10.1378/chest.94.6.1176.
Gattinoni, L.,et al
‘A Trial of Goal-Oriented Hemodynamic Therapy in Critically Ill Patients’.
N Engl J Med 333, no. 16 (1995): 1025–1032.
Rivers E  et al.
Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock.
New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 345: 1368-1377.
Jones AE.
‘The Effect of a Quantitative Resuscitation Strategy on Mortality in Patients with Sepsis: A Meta-Analysis’.
Critical Care Medicine 36, no. 10 (October 2008): 2734–2739.doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318186f839.
PRISM-U – Jacob ST et al.
The impact of early monitored management on survival in hospitalized adult Ugandan patients with severe sepsis: a prospective intervention study*.
‘A Randomized Trial of Protocol-Based Care for Early Septic Shock’.
The New England Journal of Medicine, 18 March 2014. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1401602.
Goal-Directed Resuscitation for Patients with Early Septic Shock.
N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 1  Wessex ICS BL review

Fluid in septic shock

SAFE Finfer S et al.
‘A Comparison of Albumin and Saline for Fluid Resuscitation in the Intensive Care Unit’.
The New England Journal of Medicine350, no. 22 (27 May 2004): 2247–2256. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa040232. 
Albumin Cochrane review
Human Albumin Solution for Resuscitation and Volume Expansion in Critically Ill Patients’.  
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011. doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD001208.pub2. 
FEAST – Maitland K et al. 
‘Mortality after Fluid Bolus in African Children with Severe Infection’. 
The New England Journal of Medicine 364, no. 26 (30 June 2011): 2483–2495. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1101549. 
CHEST — Myburgh J et al.
‘Hydroxyethyl Starch or Saline for Fluid Resuscitation in Intensive Care’.
New England Journal of Medicine (17 October 2012): 121017083448001. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1209759.
6S – Perner A et al.
‘Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer’s Acetate in Severe Sepsis’.
The New England Journal of Medicine 367, no. 2 (12 July 2012): 124–134. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1204242. 
Crystalloids Cochrane review –
Perel P et al‘Colloids versus Crystalloids for Fluid Resuscitation in Critically Ill Patients’.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  2013 Feb 28;2:CD000567. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000567.pub6.

Steroids in septic shock

Bollaert PE et al.
‘Reversal of Late Septic Shock with Supraphysiologic Doses of Hydrocortisone’.
Critical Care Medicine 26, no. 4 (April 1998): 645–650.
Briegel JH et al.
‘Stress Doses of Hydrocortisone Reverse Hyperdynamic Septic Shock: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Single-Center Study’.
Critical Care Medicine 27, no. 4 (April 1999): 723–732.
Annane et al.
‘Effect of Treatment with Low Doses of Hydrocortisone and Fludrocortisone on Mortality in Patients with Septic Shock’.
JAMA 288, no. 7 (21 August 2002): 862–871. The Bottom Line review
CORTICUS – Sprung C et al.
‘Hydrocortisone Therapy for Patients with Septic Shock’.
The New England Journal of Medicine 358, no. 2 (10 January 2008): 111–124. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa071366.
KETASED – Jabre P et al.
‘Etomidate versus Ketamine for Rapid Sequence Intubation in Acutely Ill Patients: A Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial’.
Lancet 374, no. 9686 (25 July 2009): 293–300. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60949-1.
COITTS – Annane D et al.
‘Corticosteroid Treatment and Intensive Insulin Therapy for Septic Shock in Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial’.
JAMA 303, no. 4 (27 January 2010): 341–348. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.2.
Chon G et al
‘Analysis of Systemic Corticosteroid Usage and Survival in Patients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation for Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia’.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 17, no. 4 (2011): 449–455.
Wang C.
‘Low-Dose Hydrocortisone Therapy Attenuates Septic Shock in Adult Patients but Does Not Reduce 28-Day Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials’.
Anesthesia and Analgesia 118, no. 2 (February 2014): 346–357. doi:10.1213/ANE.0000000000000050.

Antibiotics / Antimicrobials

Kumar A et al.
‘Duration of Hypotension before Initiation of Effective Antimicrobial Therapy Is the Critical Determinant of Survival in Human Septic Shock’.
Critical Care Medicine 34, no. 6 (June 2006): 1589–1596. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000217961.75225.E9. BL Review
Siddiqui S et al.
‘Early versus Late Pre-Intensive Care Unit Admission Broad Spectrum Antibiotics for Severe Sepsis in Adults’.
In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, edited by The Cochrane Collaboration and Shahla Siddiqui. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2010. http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD007081.pub2.
Silva BNG et al.
‘De-Escalation of Antimicrobial Treatment for Adults with Sepsis, Severe Sepsis or Septic Shock’.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3 (2013): CD007934. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007934.pub3.
DALI – Roberts JA et al.
‘DALI: Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive Care Unit Patients: Are Current Beta-Lactam Antibiotic Doses Sufficient for Critically Ill Patients?’
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (14 January 2014). doi:10.1093/cid/ciu027.
Ferrer R et al.
Empiric antibiotic treatment reduces mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock from the first hour: results from a guideline-based performance improvement program*.

Fungal infection

Meersseman WK et al.
‘Significance of the Isolation of Candida Species from Airway Samples in Critically Ill Patients: A Prospective, Autopsy Study’.
Intensive Care Medicine 35, no. 9 (September 2009): 1526–1531. doi:10.1007/s00134-009-1482-8. 
Playford EG et al,
Antifungal agents for preventing fungal infections in non-neutropenic critically ill and surgical patients: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
Azoulay E et al.
Systemic antifungal therapy in critically ill patients without invasive fungal infection*.


Berenholtz SM et al.
‘Eliminating Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections in the Intensive Care Unit*’.
Critical Care Medicine 32, no. 10 (2004): 2014–20.
Lorente L et al.
Central Venous Catheter-Related Infection in a Prospective and Observational Study of 2,595 Catheters’.
Critical Care (London, England) 9, no. 6 (2005): R631–635. doi:10.1186/cc3824.
Nagashima G et al.
‘To Reduce Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections: Is the Subclavian Route Better than the Jugular Route for Central Venous Catheterization?’
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy 12, no. 6 (December 2006): 363–65. doi:10.1007/s10156-006-0471-x.
Marik PE et al.
‘The Risk of Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Femoral Venous Catheters as Compared to Subclavian and Internal Jugular Venous Catheters: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Meta-Analysis’.
Critical Care Medicine 40, no. 8 (August 2012): 2479–85. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318255d9bc. 
Timsit JF et al.
‘Jugular versus Femoral Short-Term Catheterization and Risk of Infection in Intensive Care Unit Patients. Causal Analysis of Two Randomized Trials’.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 188, no. 10 (15 November 2013): 1232–39. doi:10.1164/rccm.201303-0460OC.
Safdar N et al.
Chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing for prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infection: a meta-analysis*.

Temperature control

FACE – Lee BH et al.
‘Association of Body Temperature and Antipyretic Treatments with Mortality of Critically Ill Patients with and without Sepsis: Multi-Centered Prospective Observational Study’.
Critical Care (London, England) 16, no. 1 (2012): R33. doi:10.1186/cc11211.
Mourvillier B et al.
‘Induced Hypothermia in Severe Bacterial Meningitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial’.
The Journal of the American Medical Association 310, no. 20 (27 November 2013): 2174–2183. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.280506.
Niven DJ et al.
‘Assessment of the Safety and Feasibility of Administering Antipyretic Therapy in Critically Ill Adults: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial’.

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