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Respiratory and airway key papers

ARDS

Ventilation Strategy

Amato MBP et al.
‘Effect of a Protective-Ventilation Strategy on Mortality in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome’.
New England Journal of Medicine 338, no. 6 (1998): 347–354.Φ
 
Stewart TE et al.
‘Evaluation of a Ventilation Strategy to Prevent Barotrauma in Patients at High Risk for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome’.
 
Brochard L et al.
‘Tidal Volume Reduction for Prevention of Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. The Multicenter Trail Group on Tidal Volume Reduction in ARDS’.
 
ARDSNET low Vt – De Campos T et al (BL review)
‘Ventilation with Lower Tidal Volumes as Compared with Traditional Tidal Volumes for Acute Lung Injury and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network’.
N Engl J Med 342, no. 18 (2000): 1302–130g.Φ
  
Eichacker P et al.
Meta-analysis of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome trials testing low tidal volumes.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002 166: 1510-4
  
LOV – Meade MO et al.
‘Ventilation Strategy Using Low Tidal Volumes, Recruitment Maneuvers, and High Positive End Expiratory Pressure for Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial’.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 299, no. 6 (13 February 2008):637645. doi:10.1001/jama.299.6.637.
 
Needham D et al.
‘Lung Protective Mechanical Ventilation and Two Year Survival in Patients with Acute Lung Injury: Prospective Cohort Study’.
BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) 344 (2012): e2124.Φ

PEEP

ARDSNET PEEP (ALVEOLI) – Brower R et al. NHLBI/ARDSNET
‘Higher versus Lower Positive End-Expiratory Pressures in Patients with the Acute Respiratory Distress
Syndrome’.
The New England Journal of Medicine 351, no. 4 (22 July 2004): 327–336. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa032193.
 
EXPRESS – Mercat A et al.
‘Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Setting in Adults with Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome’. 
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 299, no. 6 (2008): 646–655.
 
 
Goligher EC et al.
Oxygenation response to positive end-expiratory pressure predicts mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. A secondary analysis of the LOVS and ExPress trials.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jul 1;190(1):70–6. 

Paralysis

Papazian L et al.
‘Neuromuscular Blockers in Early Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome’.
The New England Journal of Medicine 363, no. 12 (16 September 2010): 1107–1116. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1005372.
 
Steingrub JS et al.
‘Treatment with Neuromuscular Blocking Agents and the Risk of in-Hospital Mortality among Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Severe Sepsis*’.
Critical Care Medicine 42, no. 1 (January 2014): 90–96. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31829eb7c9.

Oscillation

Derdak S et al.
‘High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial’.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 166, no. 6 (15 September 2002): 801–8. doi:10.1164/rccm.2108052.
 
OSCILLATE – Ferguson ND et al. (BL review)
‘High-Frequency Oscillation in Early Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome’.
New England Journal of Medicine 368, no. 9 (28 February 2013): 795–805. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1215554.
 
OSCAR – Young D et al.(BL review)
‘High-Frequency Oscillation for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome’.
New England Journal of Medicine 368, no. 9 (28 February 2013): 806–13. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1215716.
 
Sud S et al.
High-Frequency Ventilation versus Conventional Ventilation for Treatment of Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome’.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2 (2013): CD004085. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004085.pub3.

Prone position

Mancebo J et al.
‘A Multicenter Trial of Prolonged Prone Ventilation in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome’.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 173, no. 11 (2006): 1233–1239.
 
Fernandez R  et al.
Prone positioning in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a multicenter randomized clinical trial.
Intensive Care Medicine 2008; 34: 1487-91
 
PROSEVA – Guérin C et al.
‘Prone Positioning in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome’.
The New England Journal of Medicine 368, no. 23 (6 June 2013): 2159–2168. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1214103.(BL Review)
 
Sud S et al.
Effect of prone positioning during mechanical ventilation on mortality among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CMAJ. 2014 Jul 8;186(10):E381–390.  
 
Lee MJ et al.
‘The Efficacy and Safety of Prone Positional Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Updated Study-Level Meta-Analysis of 11 Randomized Controlled Trials’.
Critical Care Medicine 42, no. 5 (May 2014): 1252–62. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000122.

Recruitment manoeuvres

Fan E et al.
‘Recruitment Maneuvers for Acute Lung Injury: A Systematic Review’.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 178, no. 11 (December 2008): 1156–1163.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200802-335OC.

Steroids

Meduri GU et al. (BL review)
Effect of prolonged methylprednisolone therapy in unresolving acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.
JAMA. 1998 Jul 8;280(2):159–65. 
 
ARDSNET Steroids – Steinberg K et al.  NHLBI/ARDSNET.
‘Efficacy and Safety of Corticosteroids for Persistent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome’.
The New England Journal of Medicine 354, no. 16 (20 April 2006): 1671–1684. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa051693
 
Meduri UG et al. (BL review)
‘Methylprednisolone Infusion in Early Severe ARDS: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial’.
Chest 131, no. 4 (April 2007): 954–963. doi:10.1378/chest.06-2100.
 
Meduri GUet al.
Steroid treatment in ARDS: a critical appraisal of the ARDS network trial and the recent literature.
Intensive Care Medicine 2008; 34 : 61-9
 
Peter JV et al.
Corticosteroids in the prevention and treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults: metaanalysis.
British Medical Journal 2008; 336: 1006-9.

Fluid management

ARDSNET  FACTT –  Wiedemann HP, Wheeler AP et al
Comparison of two fluid-management strategies in acute lung injury.
New England Journal of Medicine 2006; 354: 2564-75.

ECMO

CESAR – Wiedemann HP et al
Efficacy and economic assessment of conventional ventilatory support versus extracorporeal membrane
oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure (CESAR): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.
N Engl J Med. 2006 Jun 15;354(24):2564-75
 
ANZ ECMO – Davies A et al.
‘Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome’.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 302, no. 17 (4 November 2009): 1888–1895. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1535.
 
Schmidt M e al.
Predicting Survival after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Acute Respiratory Failure. The Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survival Prediction (RESP) Score
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jun 1;189(11):1374-82. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201311-2023OC.

Pharmacotherapy

BALTI – Perkins GD et al.
‘The Β-Agonist Lung Injury Trial (BALTI): A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial’.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 173, no. 3 (February 2006): 281–287. doi:10.1164/rccm.200508-1302OC.
 
Davidson WJ et al.
Exogenous pulmonary surfactant for the treatment of adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: results of a meta-analysis.
 
BALTI-2 – Gates SG et al.
‘Beta-Agonist Lung Injury TrIal-2 (BALTI-2): A Multicentre, Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial and Economic Evaluation of Intravenous Infusion of Salbutamol versus Placebo in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome’.
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England) 17, no. 38 (September 2013): v–vi, 1–87. doi:10.3310/hta17380.

Asthma

Stoodley RG et al.
‘The Role of Ipratropium Bromide in the Emergency Management of Acute Asthma Exacerbation: A Metaanalysis of Randomized Clinical Trials’.
Annals of Emergency Medicine 34, no. 1 (July 1999): 8–18.
 
Nair P et al.
‘Addition of Intravenous Aminophylline to Inhaled beta(2)-Agonists in Adults with Acute Asthma’. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 12 (2012): CD002742. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002742.pub2. Powell C et al.‘Inhaled Magnesium Sulfate in the Treatment of Acute Asthma’. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 12 (2012): CD003898. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003898.pub5.
 
Goodacre S et al.
The 3Mg trial: a randomised controlled trial of intravenous or nebulised magnesium sulphate versus placebo in adults with acute severe asthma.
Health Technol Assess. 2014 Apr;18(22):1–168. Bottom line review
 
Nanchal R et al.
Utilization of mechanical ventilation for asthma exacerbations: analysis of a national database.

COPD

Antón A et al.
‘Predicting the Result of Noninvasive Ventilation in Severe Acute Exacerbations of Patients With Chronic Airflow Limitation’
CHEST Journal 117, no. 3 (1 March 2000): 828. doi:10.1378/chest.117.3.828.
 
CAOS – Wildman M et al.
‘Implications of Prognostic Pessimism in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) or Asthma Admitted to Intensive Care in the UK within the COPD and Asthma Outcome Study (CAOS): Multicentre Observational Cohort Study’.
BMJ 335, no. 7630 (1 December 2007): 1132–1132. doi:10.1136/bmj.39371.524271.55.
 
CAOS prediction – Wildman MJ et al.
Predicting mortality for patients with exacerbations of COPD and Asthma in the COPD and Asthma Outcome Study (CAOS).
 
Hajizadeh N et al.
What happens to patients with COPD with long-term oxygen treatment who receive mechanical ventilation for COPD exacerbation? A 1-year retrospective follow-up study.
Thorax. 2014 May 14; 

Ventilator-associated events

Drakulovic MB et al.
‘Supine Body Position as a Risk Factor for Nosocomial Pneumonia in Mechanically Ventilated Patients: A Randomised Trial’.
Lancet 354, no. 9193 (27 November 1999): 1851–58. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)12251-1
 
Heyland D et al. (Canadian Critical Care Trials Group)
A randomized trial of diagnostic techniques for ventilator-associated pneumonia.
New England Journal of Medicine 2006; 355: 2619-30
 
Safdar N et al.
Clinical and economic consequences of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review.
Critical Care Medicine 2005; 33: 2184-93.
 
Craven DE et al.
‘Incidence and Outcomes of Ventilator-Associated Tracheobronchitis and Pneumonia’.
The American Journal of Medicine 126, no. 6 (June 2013): 542–549. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2012.12.012

SODD/SDD

Silvestri L et al.
‘Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract: A Life Saver’.
Journal of Hospital Infection 45, no. 3 (July 2000): 185–90. doi:10.1053/jhin.2000.0737.
 
Bonten MJM
‘Selective Digestive Tract Decontamination—will It Prevent Infection with Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pathogens but Still Be Applicable in Institutions Where Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Are Endemic?’
Clinical Infectious Diseases 43, no. Supplement 2 (2006): S70–S74.
 
Chan EY et al.
‘Oral Decontamination for Prevention of Pneumonia in Mechanically Ventilated Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis’.
BMJ 334, no. 7599 (28 April 2007): 889–889. doi:10.1136/bmj.39136.528160.BE.
 
Dallas J’
Oral Decontamination to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Is It a Sound Strategy?’
CHEST Journal 135, no. 5 (1 May 2009): 1116. doi:10.1378/chest.08-2757.
 
Panchabhai TS  et al.
‘Oropharyngeal Cleansing With 0.2% Chlorhexidine for Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia in Critically Ill Patients: An Open-Label Randomized Trial With 0.01% Potassium Permanganate as Control’.
CHEST Journal 135, no. 5 (1 May 2009): 1150. doi:10.1378/chest.08-1321.
 
Klompas M et al.
‘Reappraisal of Routine Oral Care With Chlorhexidine Gluconate for Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis’.
JAMA Internal Medicine, 24 March 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.359.
 
 
SuDDICU again – Price R et al.
‘Selective Digestive or Oropharyngeal Decontamination and Topical Oropharyngeal Chlorhexidine for Prevention of Death in General Intensive Care: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis’.
BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) 348 (2014): g2197.

Non-invasive ventilation

GiViTI – Gristina G et al.  (Italian Group for the Evaluation of Interventions in Intensive Care Medicine).
‘Noninvasive versus Invasive Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies: A 5-Year Multicenter Observational Survey’.
Critical Care Medicine 39, no. 10 (October 2011): 2232–2239. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182227a27.
 
Esteban A  et al.
Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation for respiratory failure after extubation.
New England Journal of Medicine 2004; 350: 2542-256.
 
Peter JV et al.
Effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on mortality in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: a meta-analysis.
Lancet 2006; 367: 1155-63.

Cochrane – Faria DAS et al.
Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure following upper abdominal surgery
Cochrane reviews 5th October 2015

Ventilation During Surgery

Severgnini P et al.
‘Protective Mechanical Ventilation during General Anesthesia for Open Abdominal Surgery Improves Postoperative Pulmonary Function’.
Anesthesiology 118, no. 6(June 2013): 1307–1321. doi:10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829102de.
 
IMPROVE – Futier E et al.
A trial of intraoperative low-tidal-volume ventilation in abdominal surgery
N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 1;369(5):428–37.
 
PROVHILO – PROVE collaborators
High versus low positive end-expiratory pressure during general anaesthesia for open abdominal surgery (PROVHILO trial): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.
Lancet. 2014 May 30. pii: S0140-6736(14)60416-5. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60416-5
 
Defresne AA et al.
Recruitment of lung volume during surgery neither affects the postoperative spirometry nor the risk of hypoxaemia after laparoscopic gastric bypass in morbidly obese patients: a randomized controlled study.
Br J Anaesth. 2014 May 15. pii: aeu101

Weaning

Cochrane review – Blackwood B et al.
‘Use of Weaning Protocols for Reducing Duration of Mechanical Ventilation in Critically Ill Adult Patients: Cochrane Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis’.
BMJ: British Medical Journal 342 (2011).
 
SPANISH LUNG FAILURE GROUP – Esteban A et al
A Comparison of Four Methods of Weaning Patients from Mechanical Ventilation’.
New England Journal of Medicine 332, no. 6 (1995): 345–350.
 
Upadya A et al.
‘Fluid Balance and Weaning Outcomes’.
Intensive Care Medicine 31, no. 12 (29 September 2005): 1643–1647. doi:10.1007/s00134-005-2801-3.
 
Burns KE et al.
A meta-analysis of noninvasive weaning to facilitate liberation from mechanical ventilation. 
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 2006; 53: 305-15.
 
Wu Y-K et al.
‘Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in a Respiratory-Care Setting: A Comparison of Outcome between Tracheostomized and Translaryngeal Intubated Patients’.
Critical Care (London, England) 14, no. 2 (2010): R26. doi:10.1186/cc8890.
IMPROVe (planned) – Bissett BM et al.
‘Protocol: Inspiratory Muscle Training for Promoting Recovery and Outcomes in Ventilated Patients (IMPROVe): A Randomised Controlled Trial’.
BMJ Open 2, no. 2 (2012): e000813. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-000813.
Cochrane review 2013 – Burns KE et al.
‘Noninvasive Positive-Pressure Ventilation as a Weaning Strategy for Intubated Adults with Respiratory Failure’.
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 12 (2013): CD004127. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004127.pub3. 

Tracheostomy

Bouderka MA et al.
Early tracheostomy versus prolonged endotracheal intubation in severe head injury.
Blot F et al.
Early tracheotomy versus prolonged endotracheal intubation in unselected severely ill ICU patients.
Intensive Care Medicine 2008; 34: 1779-87
 
Scales DC et al.
The Effect of Tracheostomy Timing during Critical Illness on Long-Term Survival*:’ 
Critical Care Medicine 36, no. 9 (September 2008): 2547–2557. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31818444a5.
 
Trouillet J-L et al.
‘Early Percutaneous Tracheotomy versus Prolonged Intubation of Mechanically Ventilated Patients after Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Trial’.
Annals of Internal Medicine 154, no. 6 (15 March 2011): 373–383. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-154-6-201103150-00002
 
TRACMAN –  Young D et al.
‘Effect of Early vs Late Tracheostomy Placement on Survival in Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation: The TracMan Randomized Trial’.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 309, no. 20 (22 May 2013): 2121–2129. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.5154.
 
Siempos II et al.
Effect of early versus late or no tracheostomy on mortality of critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Lancet Respir Med. 2014 Jun 26; 

Sedation and ventilation

ABC – Girard TD  et al.
Efficacy and safety of a paired sedation and ventilator weaning protocol for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care (Awakening and Breathing Controlled trial): a randomised controlled trial.
Lancet 2008; 371: 126-34.

Pneumonia

Salluh JI et al.
The role of corticosteroids in severe community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review.
Critical Care 2008; 12: R76
 
Snijders D et al
Efficacy of Corticosteroids in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Randomized Double-Blinded Clinical Trial’.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 181, no. 9 (1 May 2010): 975–982. doi:10.1164/rccm.200905-0808OC.
 
Meijvis SCA et al.
‘Dexamethasone and Length of Hospital Stay in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial’. 
Lancet 377, no. 9782 (11 June 2011): 2023–2030. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60607-7.
 
Sligl WI et al
‘Macrolides and Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis*’. 
Critical Care Medicine 42, no. 2 (February 2014): 420–432. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182a66b9b.
 
Torres A et al.
Effect of corticosteroids on treatment failure among hospitalized patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia and high inflammatory response: a randomized clinical trial.
JAMA. 2015 Feb 17;313(7):677-86. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.88.
 
Blum CA et al.
Adjunct prednisone therapy for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.
Lancet. 2015 Jan 16. pii: S0140-6736(14)62447-8. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62447-8.

Pulmonary embolism

PISA-PED – Miniati M et al.
‘Accuracy of Clinical Assessment in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism’.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 159, no. 3 (1999): 864–71.
 
Konstantinides S et al.
‘Heparin plus Alteplase Compared with Heparin Alone in Patients with Submassive Pulmonary Embolism’.
New England Journal of Medicine 347, no. 15 (2002): 1143–50.
 
Wan, S.
‘Thrombolysis Compared With Heparin for the Initial Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism: A Meta-Analysis of the Randomized Controlled Trials’.
Circulation 110, no. 6 (26 July 2004): 744–49. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000137826.09715.9C.
 
Tapson VF
‘Acute Pulmonary Embolism’.
New England Journal of Medicine 358, no. 10 (2008): 1037–52.
 
Kuo WT et al
‘Catheter-Directed Therapy for the Treatment of Massive Pulmonary Embolism: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Modern Techniques’.
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR 20, no. 11 (November 2009): 1431–40. doi:10.1016/j.jvir.2009.08.002.
 
Kakkar AK e al.
‘Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin and Mortality in Acutely Ill Medical Patients’.
New England Journal of Medicine 365, no. 26 (29 December 2011): 2463–72. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1111288.
 
MOPETT – Sharifi M et al.
‘Moderate Pulmonary Embolism Treated with Thrombolysis (from the “MOPETT” Trial)’.
The American Journal of Cardiology 111, no. 2 (15 January 2013): 273–77. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.09.027.
 
Kline J et al
‘Randomized trial of tenecteplase or placebo with low molecular weight heparin for acute submassive PE: assessment of patient-orientated cardiopulmonary outcomes at three months’.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 61, no. 10 (March 2013): E2074. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(13)62074-4.
 
TOPCOAT – Kline et al.
‘Treatment of Submassive Pulmonary Embolism with Tenecteplase or Placebo: Cardiopulmonary Outcomes at 3 Months: Multicenter Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial’.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH 12, no. 4 (April 2014): 459–68. doi:10.1111/jth.12521.
 
PEITHO – Meyer GEV et al.
‘Fibrinolysis for Patients with Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism’.
The New England Journal of Medicine 370, no. 15 (10 April 2014): 1402–11. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1302097.
 
Chatterjee S et al.
‘Thrombolysis for Pulmonary Embolism and Risk of All-Cause Mortality, Major Bleeding, and Intracranial Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis’.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 311, no. 23 (18 June 2014): 2414–21. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.5990.

Nitric oxide

Adhikari NK et al.
Effect of nitric oxide on oxygenation and mortality in acute lung injury: systematic review and meta-analysis.
British Medical Journal 2007; 334: 779-86 
 
Adhikari NKJ et al.
‘Inhaled Nitric Oxide Does Not Reduce Mortality in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome regardless of Severity: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis*’.
Critical Care Medicine 42, no. 2 (February 2014): 404–412. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182a27909.

Extubation

Fan T et al.Prophylactic administration of parenteral steroids for preventing airway complications after extubation in adults:meta-analysis of randomised placebo controlled trials.
British Medical Journal 2008; 337: 1088-91
 
Roberts RJ et al,
‘Corticosteroids for Prevention of Postextubation Laryngeal Edema in Adults’.
The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 42, no. 5 (May 2008): 686–691. doi:10.1345/aph.1K655.
 
Markovitz BP et al
‘Corticosteroids for the Prevention and Treatment of Post Extubation Stridor in Neonates, Children and Adults’.T
he Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews no. 2 (2008): doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001000.pub2.

Semler MW et al.

Randomized Trial of Apneic Oxygenation during Endotracheal Intubation of the Critically Ill.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Feb 1;193(3):273-80. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201507-1294OC.

Influenza

Boots RJ et al.‘Experience with High Frequency Oscillation Ventilation during the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic in Australia and New Zealand’.Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 39, no. 5 (September 2011): 837–846.Zangrillo A et al.

‘Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) in Patients with H1N1 Influenza Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Including 8 Studies and 266 Patients Receiving ECMO’.

Critical Care (London, England) 17, no. 1 (13 February 2013): R30. doi:10.1186/cc12512.

 

Napolitano LM et al.

‘Critically Ill Patients With Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in 2014’.

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 24 February 2014. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.2116.

 

Heliox

Colebourn CL at al.

Use of helium-oxygen mixture in adult patients presenting with exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

Anaesthesia 2007; 62: 34-42.

Obesity

Marik PE and Desai H.
‘Characteristics of Patients with the “Malignant Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome” Admitted to an ICU’.
Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 28, no. 2 (April 2013): 124–30. doi:10.1177/0885066612444261.

TRALI

Marik, Paul E., and Howard L. Corwin.

‘Acute Lung Injury Following Blood Transfusion: Expanding the Definition:’

Critical Care Medicine 36, no. 11 (November 2008): 3080–3084. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31818c3801.

Hébert PC
‘A Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care’.
New England Journal of Medicine 340, no. 6 (1999): 409–417.

Haematological malignancy

GiViTI – Gristina GR et al (Italian Group for the Evaluation of Interventions in Intensive Care Medicine).
‘Noninvasive versus Invasive Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies: A 5-Year Multicenter Observational Survey’.
Critical Care Medicine 39, no. 10 (October 2011): 2232–2239. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182227a27.

Physiotherapy

Schweickert WD
Early physical and occupational therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a randomised controlled trial.
Lancet. 2009 May 30;373(9678):1874-82. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60658-9.

Calvo-Ayala E

Interventions to improve the physical function of ICU survivors: a systematic review.
Chest. 2013 Nov;144(5):1469-80. doi: 10.1378/chest.13-0779.

.

Weaning

Esteban et al.
A comparison of four methods of weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Spanish Lung Failure Collaborative Group.
N Engl J Med. 1995 Feb 9;332(6):345-50.

Burns KE et all.
Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation as a weaning strategy for intubated adults with respiratory failur
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Aug 4;(8):CD004127. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004127.pub2.

Jubran A et al.
Effect of pressure support vs unassisted breathing through a tracheostomy collar on weaning duration in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation: a randomized trial.
JAMA. 2013 Feb 20;309(7):671-7. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.159.

Blackwood B

Protocolized versus non-protocolized weaning for reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation in critically illadult patients.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 6;11:CD006904. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006904.pub3.

High-flow humidified oxygen

Frat J-P et al.
High-flow oxygen through nasal cannula in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure.

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