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Gastrointestinal and nutrition key papers

Liver failure

Lee WM et al.
Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves transplant-free survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver failure.



Simpson F and Doig GS.
‘Parenteral vs. Enteral Nutrition in the Critically Ill Patient: A Meta-Analysis of Trials Using the Intention to Treat Principle’.
Intensive Care Medicine 31, no. 1 (January 2005): 12–23. doi:10.1007/s00134-004-2511-2. 
Davies AR et al.
A multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing early nasojejunal with nasogastric nutrition in critical illness.
CALORIES – Harevy SE et al.
Trial of the Route of Early Nutritional Support in Critically Ill Adults
NEJM, 2014 Oct online


TICACOS – Singer P et al.
The tight calorie control study (TICACOS): a prospective, randomized, controlled pilot study of nutritional support in critically ill patients.


REDOXS – Heyland DK et al.
REducing Deaths due to OXidative Stress (The REDOXS Study): Rationale and study design for a randomized trial of glutamine and antioxidant supplementation in critically-ill patients.
Proc Nutr Soc. 2006 Aug;65(3):250–63.
SIGNET – Andrews PJD et al.
Randomised trial of glutamine, selenium, or both, to supplement parenteral nutrition for critically ill patients.
OMEGA (EDEN) – Rice TW et al.
Enteral omega-3 fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidant supplementation in acute lung injury.
Heyland D et al.‘A Randomized Trial of Glutamine and Antioxidants in Critically Ill Patients’.


EPaNIC – Casaer MP et al.
‘Early versus Late Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Adults’.
The New England Journal of Medicine 365, no. 6 (11 August 2011): 506–517. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1102662.
EDEN – Todd W et al. (ARDSNET)
‘Initial Trophic vs Full Enteral Feeding in Patients with Acute Lung Injury: The EDEN Randomized Trial’.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 307, no. 8 (22 February 2012): 795–803. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.137. 
EDEN follow-up – Needham DM et al.
‘Physical and Cognitive Performance of Patients with Acute Lung Injury 1 Year after Initial Trophic versus Full Enteral Feeding. EDEN Trial Follow-Up’. 
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 188, no. 5 (1 September 2013): 567–576. doi:10.1164/rccm.201304-0651OC. 
ANZICS Early PN – Doig GS et al.
Early parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients with short-term relative contraindications to early enteral nutrition: a randomized controlled trial.


Edmunds CE et al.
‘The Effects of Different IV Fat Emulsions on Clinical Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients’.
Critical Care Medicine 42, no. 5 (May 2014): 1168–77. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000146.


Alhazzani W et al.
The effect of selenium therapy on mortality in patients with sepsis syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Residual volumes

Montejo JC et al.
Gastric residual volume during enteral nutrition in ICU patients: the REGANE study.
NATRIREA 1 – Reignier J et al.
Effect of not monitoring residual gastric volume on risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults receiving mechanical ventilation and early enteral feeding: a randomized controlled trial.


Singer P et al.
‘The Truth about Nutrition in the ICU’.
Intensive Care Medicine 40, no. 2 (22 November 2013): 252–255. doi:10.1007/s00134-013-3162-y.

Ulcer prophylaxis

Cook D et al.
‘Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in Critically Ill Patients. Resolving Discordant Meta-Analyses’.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 275, no. 4 (24 January 1996): 308–314.
Cook D et al.
‘A Comparison of Sucralfate and Ranitidine for the Prevention of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients Requiring Mechanical Ventilation’.
New England Journal of Medicine 338, no. 12 (1998): 791–797.
Maclaren R et al.
‘Histamine-2 Receptor Antagonists vs Proton Pump Inhibitors on Gastrointestinal Tract Hemorrhage and Infectious Complications in the Intensive Care Unit’.
JAMA Internal Medicine, 17 February 2014. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.14673.

Upper GI haemorrhage

Villanueva C et al.
Transfusion strategies for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
N Engl J Med 2013; 368:11-21January 3, 2013DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1211801Probiotics

Probiotics and microbiota

Watkinson PJ
‘The Use of Pre- pro- and Synbiotics in Adult Intensive Care Unit Patients: Systematic Review’. 
Clinical Nutrition 26, no. 2 (April 2007): 182–192. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2006.07.010. 
Goldenberg JZ, et al.
Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children.
Schuijt TJ et al.
‘The Intestinal Microbiota and Host Immune Interactions in the Critically Ill’.

Ascites - sampling and draining

Wilkerson RG, Sinert R.
Evidence-based emergency medicine/rational clinical examination abstract: The use of paracentesis in the assessment of the patient with ascites.

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