↑ Return to Key papers

Pre and post ICU key papers

Predicting outcome

APACHE score – Knaus WA et al.
‘APACHE-Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation: A Physiologically Based Classification System’.
Critical Care Medicine 9, no. 8 (August 1981): 591–97.
APACHE II score – Knaus WA et al.
‘APACHE II: A Severity of Disease Classification System’.
Critical Care Medicine 13, no. 10 (October 1985): 818–29.
SAPS II score – Le Gall JR et al.
‘A New Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) Based on a European/North American Multicenter Study’.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 270, no. 24 (22 December 1993): 2957–63.
SOFA score – Vincent JL et al.
‘The SOFA (Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment) Score to Describe Organ Dysfunction/failure. On Behalf of the Working Group on Sepsis-Related Problems of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine’.
Intensive Care Medicine 22, no. 7 (July 1996): 707–10.
ICNARC ‘score’ – Harrison DA et al.
‘A New Risk Prediction Model for Critical Care: The Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) Model’.
Critical Care Medicine 35, no. 4 (April 2007): 1091–98. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000259468.24532.44.
Le Maguet P et al.
‘Prevalence and Impact of Frailty on Mortality in Elderly ICU Patients: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study’.
Intensive Care Medicine 40, no. 5 (May 2014): 674–82. doi:10.1007/s00134-014-3253-4.

MET/EMT/EWS and the deteriorating patient

APACHE II – Knaus WA et al.
‘APACHE II: A Severity of Disease Classification System’.
Critical Care Medicine 13, no. 10 (October 1985): 818–829. 
MERIT – DeVita MA et al.
‘Use of Medical Emergency Team Responses to Reduce Hospital Cardiopulmonary Arrests’.
Quality & Safety in Health Care 13, no. 4 (August 2004): 251–54. doi:10.1136/qhc.13.4.251. 
Hillman K et al.
‘Introduction of the Medical Emergency Team (MET) System: A Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial’.
Lancet 365, no. 9477 (18 June 2005): 2091–97. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66733-5. 
SOCCER – Jacques T et al
Signs of critical conditions and emergency responses (SOCCER): a model for predicting adverse events in the inpatient setting.
Resuscitation. 2006 May;69(2):175-83. Epub 2006 Feb 23
Peberdy MA et al.
‘Recommended Guidelines for Monitoring, Reporting, and Conducting Research on Medical Emergency Team, Outreach, and Rapid Response Systems: An Utstein-Style Scientific Statement: A Scientific Statement from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation; the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Perioperative, and Critical Care; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research’.
Circulation 116, no. 21 (20 November 2007): 2481–2500. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.186227.
Chan PS et al.
‘Hospital-Wide Code Rates and Mortality before and after Implementation of a Rapid Response Team’.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 300, no. 21 (3 December 2008): 2506–2513. doi:10.1001/jama.2008.715.
Howell MD et al.
‘Sustained Effectiveness of a Primary-Team-Based Rapid Response System’. 
Critical Care Medicine 40, no. 9 (September 2012): 2562–68. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318259007b.
Boniatti M et al.
‘Delayed Medical Emergency Team Calls and Associated Outcomes*’.
Critical Care Medicine 42, no. 1 (January 2014): 26–30. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31829e53b9.
Huh JW et al,
‘Activation of a Medical Emergency Team Using an Electronic Medical Recording-Based Screening System*’
Critical Care Medicine 42, no. 4 (April 2014): 801–8. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000031.
Corfield A et al.
Utility of a single early warning score in patients with sepsis in the emergency department
Emerg Med J. 2014 Jun;31(6):482-7. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2012-202186. Epub 2013 Mar 9.

Iatrogenic events

McQuillan P et al.
‘Confidential Inquiry into Quality of Care before Admission to Intensive Care’.
BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) 316, no. 7148 (20 June 1998): 1853–1858.
PREVENT – Garry D et al.
‘A Prospective Multicentre Observational Study of Adverse Iatrogenic Events and Substandard Care Preceding Intensive Care Unit Admission (PREVENT)’.
Anaesthesia 69, no. 2 (February 2014): 137–142. doi:10.1111/anae.12535.

Long term outcome

Dowdy DW et al.
‘Quality of Life in Adult Survivors of Critical Illness: A Systematic Review of the Literature’.
Intensive Care Medicine 31, no. 5 (1 April 2005): 611 620. doi:10.1007/s00134-005-2592-6.
Oeyen SG et al.
‘Quality of Life after Intensive Care: A Systematic Review of the Literature’.
Critical Care Medicine 38, no. 12 (December 2010): 2386–2400. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181f3dec5.
Needham DM et al.
‘Improving Long-Term Outcomes after Discharge from Intensive Care Unit: Report from a Stakeholders’ Conference’.
Critical Care Medicine 40, no. 2 (February 2012): 502–9. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e318232da75.
Pandharipande PP et al.
‘Long-Term Cognitive Impairment after Critical Illness’.
The New England Journal of Medicine 369, no. 14 (3 October 2013): 1306–1316. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1301372.
Mehlhorn J et al.
‘Rehabilitation Interventions for Postintensive Care Syndrome: A Systematic Review*’.
Critical Care Medicine 42, no. 5 (May 2014): 1263–71. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000148.
Hajizadeh N et al.
What happens to patients with COPD with long-term oxygen treatment who receive mechanical ventilation for COPD exacerbation? A 1-year retrospective follow-up study.
Thorax. 2014 May 14;
Prescott HC et al.
Increased 1-year healthcare use in survivors of severe sepsis.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jul 1;190(1):62–9. 
BRAIN-ICU – Pandharipande PP et al.
Long-term cognitive impairment after critical illness.
N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 3;369(14):1306-16. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1301372.
Griffiths J et al.
An exploration of social and economic outcome and associated health-related quality of life after critical illness in general intensive care unit survivors: a 12-month follow-up study.
Hermans G et al.
Acute Outcomes and 1-Year Mortality of Intensive Care Unit-acquired Weakness. A Cohort Study and Propensity-matched Analysis.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Aug 15;190(4):410–20.
Chao P-W et al.
Association of postdischarge rehabilitation with mortality in intensive care unit survivors of sepsis.
Jackson JC et al.
Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and functional disability in survivors of critical illness in the BRAIN-ICU study: a longitudinal cohort study.

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